Installing Debian for Desktop Use (All Versions)

Posted Monday 18 December 2017 by Urs Riggenbach.

1. Download file:
https://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/cd-including-firmware/9.3.0+nonfree/amd64/iso-dvd/firmware-9.3.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso

2. Create bootable install pendrive:
- open "Gnome Disks" software. 
- select Pendrive 
- Top right menu (3 bars icon) → "Restore Disk Image"
- Select downloaded debian.iso file and hit OK
- This will delete all your files on pendrive and make install pendrive.

3. Reboot your computer, and boot from USB (Press F2, F12 or F9 during boot and select USB)
4. Install Debian. Select "Fully erase disk and create encrypted lvm"

Post-Installation Setup

 Once debian is installed, follow these instructions to configure and install the needed software. 
 
 Save this file on a pendrive and paste the commands as you see fit. 
 
 Notes: Whenever there is a # at the beginning of a line, it means it is a comment for you. Normal lines you can just paste in the terminal.

Oneliners

Oneliner Debian 10:
Open Terminal, become root (su), and paste the following command: (it opens software sources configurator and downloads needed software. Tick all three first tickboxes in software configurator and hit OK (this will load non-free and contrib sources): 

    •  apt-get install software-properties-gtk gedit lsb-release sudo nano qemu-kvm libguestfs-tools aptitude wget dialog libcanberra-gtk-module htop curl lshw firmware-brcm80211 broadcom-sta-dkms libavcodec-extra gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly libavcodec-extra vlc thunderbird inkscape gparted lifeograph simple-scan xbindkeys qemu-kvm sshfs sshuttle duplicity deja-dup faenza-icon-theme pm-utils epiphany-browser gpm guake enigmail vlc owncloud-client simple-scan espeak inkscape guake gedit ttf-mscorefonts-installer texlive-fonts-extra pdfshuffler gthumb dialog rsync unattended-upgrades vlc pdfshuffler espeak borgbackup exfat-utils exfat-fuse guake parcellite hunspell-fr libreoffice-l10n-fr hunspell-en-us hunspell-en-gb libreoffice-l10n-en-gb libreoffice-l10n-de hunspell-de-ch hunspell-es thunderbird-l10n-de thunderbird-l10n-es-es thunderbird-l10n-fr thunderbird-l10n-it firmware-linux-nonfree dnsutils chromium foomatic-db seahorse-nautilus gnome-shell* nautilus-extension-gnome-terminal exiftool bash-completion kdenlive linux-cpupower kcachegrind

Minimal buster seclap: 
 apt install qemu-kvm sshfs sshuttle duplicity deja-dup faenza-icon-theme pm-utils gpm guake parcellite thunderbird bash-completion linux-cpupower dialog rsync borgbackup
 

Oneliner Debian 9:
Open Terminal, become root (su), and paste the following command: (it opens software sources configurator and downloads needed software. Tick all three first tickboxes in software configurator and hit OK (this will load non-free and contrib sources): 

    •  apt-get install gksu software-properties-gtk gedit -y && software-properties-gtk && apt-get update && apt install -y lsb-release sudo nano qemu-kvm libguestfs-tools aptitude gksu wget dialog libcanberra-gtk-module htop curl lshw firmware-brcm80211 broadcom-sta-dkms libavcodec-extra gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly libavcodec-extra vlc icedove inkscape gparted lifeograph simple-scan xbindkeys qemu-kvm sshfs sshuttle duplicity deja-dup faenza-icon-theme pm-utils epiphany-browser gpm guake enigmail vlc owncloud-client simple-scan espeak inkscape guake gedit ttf-mscorefonts-installer texlive-fonts-extra pdfshuffler gthumb dialog rsync unattended-upgrades vlc pdfshuffler espeak borgbackup exfat-utils exfat-fuse guake parcellite hunspell-fr libreoffice-l10n-fr hunspell-en-us hunspell-en-gb libreoffice-l10n-en-gb libreoffice-l10n-de hunspell-de-ch hunspell-es icedove-l10n-de icedove-l10n-es-es icedove-l10n-fr icedove-l10n-it firmware-linux-nonfree dnsutils chromium foomatic-db seahorse-nautilus gnome-shell* nautilus-extension-gnome-terminal exiftool bash-completion

Oneliner debian 8:
 (only software packages)

  • apt install -y lsb-release sudo nano qemu-kvm libguestfs-tools aptitude gksu wget dialog libcanberra-gtk-module htop curl lshw firmware-brcm80211 broadcom-sta-dkms libavcodec-extra gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly libavcodec-extra vlc icedove inkscape gparted lifeograph simple-scan xbindkeys qemu-kvm sshfs sshuttle duplicity deja-dup faenza-icon-theme pm-utils epiphany-browser gpm guake xul-ext-noscript enigmail vlc owncloud-client simple-scan espeak inkscape guake gedit xul-ext-adblock-plus ttf-mscorefonts-installer texlive-fonts-extra pdfshuffler gthumb dialog rsync unattended-upgrades vlc pdfshuffler espeak attic exfat-utils exfat-fuse guake parcellite myspell-fr libreoffice-l10n-fr myspell-en-us myspell-en-gb libreoffice-l10n-en-gb libreoffice-l10n-de myspell-de-ch myspell-es icedove-l10n-de icedove-l10n-es-es icedove-l10n-fr icedove-l10n-it firmware-linux-nonfree dnsutils chromium gnumeric foomatic-db nautilus-extension-gnome-terminal bash-completion

Detailed Post Installation Notes

 #Open up a terminal and become root:
su
#enter password, hit [enter].

apt-get install gksu software-properties-gtk gedit -y
gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

#save the file
#After save, your file should look like this:

##################################################

# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 8 _Jessie_ - Official Snapshot amd64 LIVE/INSTALL Binary 20150908-22:02]/ jessie main contrib non-free
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 8 _Jessie_ - Official Snapshot amd64 LIVE/INSTALL Binary 20150908-22:02]/ jessie main contrib non-free
 
deb http://httpredir.debian.org/debian jessie main contrib non-free
deb-src http://httpredir.debian.org/debian jessie main contrib non-free
 
deb http://httpredir.debian.org/debian jessie-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://httpredir.debian.org/debian jessie-updates main contrib non-free
 
deb http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free
 
# deb http://http.debian.net/debian jessie-backports main
deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie main non-free contrib
#########################################
 
#Then, run:
 apt-get update
apt-get upgrade
 
#to update the system.

#install essentional packages:
apt-get install lsb-release sudo nano qemu-kvm libguestfs-tools aptitude gksu wget dialog libcanberra-gtk-module htop curl lshw 
apt install bash-completion

WIFI

Intel devices such as Will's laptop
apt-get install firmware-iwlwifi
#arnaud's laptop wifi:
apt-get install firmware-realtek
#dell precision:
 apt-get install firmware-iwlwifi
#urs old macbook air:
 apt-get install firmware-brcm80211 broadcom-sta-dkms
#to diagnose unknown hardware:
 apt-get install lshw && lshw -c network

ZFS

Changed to backports: https://github.com/zfsonlinux/zfs/wiki/Debian
OR:
wget http://archive.zfsonlinux.org/debian/pool/main/z/zfsonlinux/zfsonlinux_6_all.deb
dpkg -i zfsonlinux_6_all.deb
wget http://zfsonlinux.org/4D5843EA.asc -O - | apt-key add -
apt-get update
apt-get install debian-zfs

OWNCLOUD

wget http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/isv:ownCloud:desktop/Debian_8.0/Release.key
apt-key add - < Release.key 
rm Release.key 
echo 'deb http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/isv:/ownCloud:/desktop/Debian_8.0/ /' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/owncloud-client.list 
apt-get update && apt-get install owncloud-client-nautilus owncloud-client -y

FLASH

apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree

Google talk/Hangout

wget https://dl.google.com/linux/direct/google-talkplugin_current_amd64.deb
dpkg -i google-talkplugin_current_amd64.deb
rm google-talkplugin_current_amd64.deb

Skype:

new:
 wget https://go.skype.com/skypeforlinux-64.deb
 dpkg -i skypeforlinux-64.deb
 apt-get install -f
 dpkg -i skypeforlinux-64.deb
 rm skypeforlinux-64.deb
old:

  • wget http://download.skype.com/linux/skype-debian_4.3.0.37-1_i386.deb
  • sudo dpkg —add-architecture i386 && sudo aptitude update
  • sudo apt-get install libc6:i386 libqt4-dbus:i386 libqt4-network:i386 libqt4-xml:i386 libqtcore4:i386 libqtgui4:i386 libqtwebkit4:i386 libstdc++6:i386 libx11-6:i386 libxext6:i386 libxss1:i386 libxv1:i386 libssl1.0.0:i386 libpulse0:i386 libasound2-plugins:i386
  • dpkg -i skype-debian_4.3.0.37-1_i386.deb
  • rm skype-debian_4.3.0.37-1_i386.deb
  • #only if on nvidia-driver, then also install this package:
  • # apt-get install libgl1-nvidia-glx:i386

#Install VLC and multimedia support

new: (missing)
old: 
apt-get install libavcodec-extra gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly libavcodec-extra vlc -y
#libdvdcss2 is not available in the official Debian repositories. Details on where to get libdvdcss2 from are described at =CDDVD=

#Font's and other SFCO software

#nonfree microsoft fonts
apt-get install icedove inkscape gparted lifeograph simple-scan xbindkeys qemu-kvm sshfs sshuttle duplicity deja-dup faenza-icon-theme pm-utils epiphany-browser gpm guake xul-ext-noscript enigmail vlc owncloud-client simple-scan espeak inkscape guake gedit xul-ext-adblock-plus ttf-mscorefonts-installer texlive-fonts-extra pdfshuffler gthumb dialog rsync unattended-upgrades vlc pdfshuffler espeak borgbackup exfat-utils exfat-fuse guake parcellite -y

  •  

old debian 8: apt-get install icedove inkscape gparted lifeograph simple-scan xbindkeys qemu-kvm sshfs sshuttle duplicity deja-dup faenza-icon-theme pm-utils epiphany-browser gpm guake xul-ext-noscript enigmail vlc owncloud-client simple-scan espeak inkscape guake gedit xul-ext-adblock-plus ttf-mscorefonts-installer texlive-fonts-extra pdfshuffler gthumb dialog rsync unattended-upgrades vlc pdfshuffler espeak attic exfat-utils exfat-fuse dnsutils -y

#add unattended upgrade reconfigure and firewall

https://pad.sisustainable.com/p/recipe-container-essentials

#swapfile

dd if=/dev/zero of=/swap bs=1024 count=8000000 #8gb
mkswap /swap 
chmod 600 /swap
swapon /swap 

#Add int nano /etc/fstab:
#/swap none swap sw 0 0

#Keyboard

dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration 

#Language packs, spellcheck (?)

apt-get install myspell-fr libreoffice-l10n-fr myspell-en-us myspell-en-gb libreoffice-l10n-en-gb libreoffice-l10n-de myspell-de-ch myspell-es -y
#thunderbird languages
apt-get install icedove-l10n-de icedove-l10n-es-es icedove-l10n-fr icedove-l10n-it -y
#also install languages for iceweasel/firefox/openoffice.

#nvidia / video

apt-get install nvidia-detect -y
apt-get install nvidia-driver nvidia-xconfig -y
nvidia-xconfig
or use nvidia install from Scripts. 

# if radeon: enable non-free
apt-get install firmware-linux-nonfree

# nonfree kernel support *intel graphics cards(
 apt-get install firmware-linux-nonfree
 
 
More:
apt install nautilus-extension-gnome-terminal

Configuration Checklist

install browser certs
system language
system keyboard
leafy
browser cert
enigmail encryption
email
cloud
calendars
email accounts, incl. signatures and download/cache settings
backup with deja dup
autoupdate for flash
viedo drivers
audio, video and skype
hangout
encryption keys / enigmail
password-lock
autosuspend
dvd playback
zfs
phone connection
usb file systems
scanner & printers setup
wifi pws and drivers
flash 
touchpad mate : gsomething program fixes that
redshift
french browser
libdvdcss
disable unlock keyring (mate, gnome)
check skype
check ghang
check spellcheck in libreoffice
spellcheck in icedove
video playback: libdvdcss from deb multimedia precmpiled
zfs

Upgrade to Debian 9 Notes

replace sources list (jessie to stable)
sed -i 's/jessie/stretch/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
apt update
apt dist-upgrade
#automated (replace all config files)
sudo apt-get -o Dpkg::Options::=&quot;--force-confdef&quot; -o Dpkg::Options::=&quot;--force-confold&quot; dist-upgrade
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